Wednesday, 27 December 2017

The Viking Ships of Roskilde, Denmark

One of the great things about Copenhagen is that the 48 hour travel card available to tourists can be used on Denmark's suburban railways. Therefore, it is perfectly reasonable to jump on a train and take a day trip out to Roskilde which is a town whose identity is firmly set in the Viking era.

The Quay at Roskilde
 The vast Roskilde Fjord offers protected access to the North Sea and easy passage to Norway and the British Isles beyond. In ancient times Roskilde was a bustling trading settlement. Nowadays it is a thriving tourist destination drawing visitors to its' impressive cathedral and the internationally acclaimed Viking Museum. The walk from the station to the quayside is about a mile down a shopping street and then through a waterside park.

The Prow of a Viking Longship c1050 AD
In the 10th Century five Viking ships were deliberately sunk across one of the deep water channels leading down into Roskilde from the open sea to the north. They were a disparate selection ranging from a small cargo ship through to a full length 36 metre fighting long boat. The remains of the ship are in a concrete structure on the shore of the Roskilde Fjord adjacent to a small harbour filled with reconstructed ancient ships, some of which take tourists out onto the water.

Reconstructed Viking Ship on Roskilde Fjord
I found myself thinking about why the ships were sunk in the particular channel that they were found in. The answer lies in a calculation of speed, visibility and readiness; the speed with which an intruder could reach Roskilde town, the extent to which the presence of the intruder could be signalled to the townsfolk and finally how quickly the townsfolk could mobilise for action - women & children to safety and men armed and ready to fight. Obviously the seaways needed to be kept open for local traffic so the contemporary defensive tactics entailed forcing intruders down particular passages, delaying them where necessary, in order to allow the townsfolk to prepare for battle.

Permanent Block and Floating Barrages
The map above shows the routes through Roskilde Fjord in light grey. Roskilde is off the map at the bottom and the spot where the Viking ships were discovered in modern times is shown as Peberrenden. The actual site of the Viking ship block is known as Skuldelev hence the finds being known as the Skuldelev Ships. The shortest route is blocked thus forcing ships to take a longer route - giving time for mobilisation of the defence on receipt of a warning by fire beacon.

Roskilde Viking Museum
As one might imagine only the skeletons of the 1,000 year old ships remain. This does not detract from their impact though. Whilst the museum building is not a pretty sight from the landward side, it does have a water facing glass wall which shows off the ships to maximum effect. The picture above shows the largest ship along with a scale model.

Friday, 15 December 2017

Vaxholm Fortress - Stockholm's Lock

The island of Vaxholm is a leisurely boat ride from the city of Stockholm and makes for a lovely day trip with it's brightly coloured houses, picturesque harbour and quant waterside restaurants. There are two shipping routes through the archipelago which sits between the city of Stockholm and the open sea. Of these, the channel that runs between Vaxholm and Rindo is the most important and it is not surprising therefore, that Gustav Vasa chose to build a fortress on this spot in the 16th Century.

Vaxholm Fortress
Prior to the 19th Century Stockholm sat in the middle of a Swedish empire which incorporated what is now Finland along with Latvia and Estonia. More recently Vaxholm's strategic importance has been sharpened because, in the context of 19th Century Sweden, Stockholm faced directly into territory controlled by potential enemies - in particular Russia and Denmark.

Vaxholm's Strategic Importance
The islet on which the modern day fortress was first used for military purposes in 1548 when part of the Oksdupet channel was blocked in order to force shipping into the narrow passage past Vaxholm. In Vasa's era considerable improvements were made, including the construction of a three storey tower.

The fortress first proved its' value in 1598 when a Polish fleet was stopped by the guns deployed on the islet's ramparts. Similarly, a Danish fleet was sent packing fourteen years later in 1612. Just over 100 years later a Russian fleet was repulsed by the island's garrison of 400 men serving 80 guns.

Following the Finnish War of 1808-9 between Sweden and Russia further improvements were made to the fortress at Vaxholm and during the period 1833-63 the citadel was completely rebuilt. Two metre thick walls were lined with granite blocks and the fortress was armed with 150 230mm guns served by a garrison of 1038 artillerymen.

Early 20th Century Naval Gun
Through the ensuing one hundred years or so various improvements were made to the Vaxholm defences. During the World Wars the fort saw no action although in the early 1940s Polish submarine crews were imprisoned in the citadel. The cold war brought further developments including a post WW2 upgrade of the batteries.

Post War Artillery Cupolas
In the year 2000 the island's defences were decommissioned and the citadel was fully opened as the Fastnings Museum which was extended and improved in 2003 - home to a fascinating array of exhibits illustrating the history of Sweden's coastal defences. The islet on which the fortress sits is accessed via a chain ferry which runs back and forth to the nearby island harbour.

Vaxholm Chain Ferry
It is possible to walk right around the island and well worth doing so as many of the later defences are still intact including the last iteration of the main battery. The museum is superb and will easily soak up a couple of hours. Finally there is an cafe in the inner courtyard where al-fresco diners can enjoy a lunch sitting amongst decommissioned sea mines of all shapes and sizes.

For a taste of Vaxholm's beautiful water front click here.

Sunday, 1 October 2017

Britain's Last Invasion - Fishguard (1797)

A family walking holiday in beautiful Pembrokeshire proved to be a great opportunity to investigate the last invasion of Britain. Following the French Revolution, there was an expectation that the days of the aristocracy were numbered - not just on mainland Europe but also across the channel in the United Kingdom. The newly installed French revolutionary government thought that West Wales would be an excellent place to 'light the touch-paper'.

Llannwnda and Carregwastad Point
The French plan entailed landing a force of 15,000 men at Bantry Bay in Ireland. Two diversionary attacks were planned - one in West Wales (with an advance towards Bristol) and the other in Northumberland (with an advance towards Newcastle). The forces bound for Bantry Bay and Northumberland returned to France prematurely after suffering a number of setbacks. The third force, heading towards Fishguard, proceeded as planned - and on the 22nd February 1797 1,400 men of La Legion Noir under the command of renegade Irishman Colonel William Tate came ashore at Carregwastad Point, near Fishguard.

Llannwnda Church
St Gwyndaf's Church, Llannwnda
The invasion was a complete surprise but nevertheless the Pembrokeshire Militia were quickly mobilised under the leadership of Lieutenant Colonel Colby. Approximately 5,000 men from various local units were available to push back the invaders. 

Tate's men, however, seemed more inclined to explore the farmhouses and settlements close to the landing place. They lit fires, looted possessions and drank copious amounts of alcohol. St Gwyndaf's church at Llannwnda was ransacked and there were reports of violence against local civilians, including two rapes.

The next day the newly arrived County Militia units began to deploy on the heights (such as Carnwnda) around the villages where the French had spent their first night ashore. Tate's men were tired, cold and hungover. Morale was in freefall. By nightfall on the second day, the local British troops were settled in Fishguard. Tate decided that there was no point in continuing and he sent his second in command, Baron de Rochemure, and his ADC Francois L'Hanhard to negotiate a French withdrawal.

The author with his eldest Granddaughter, Scarlett
The two Frenchmen were guided into Fishguard by Thomas Williams of Caerlem, whose wife had been shot and raped, to a house in Fishguard which now serves as a public house - The Royal Oak.

The negotiation was initiated by Colonel Thomas Knox, commanding officer of the Fishguard Volunteers but undertaken by Lord Cawdor, Captain of the Castlemartin Troop of the Pembroke Yeomanry Cavalry. Cawdor insisted on unconditional surrender and the next morning the French mustered on Goodwick Sands where Tate gave up his sword in a final act of compliance.

The Surrender
In his excellent book 'Britain's Last Invasion: Fishguard 1797' J.E.Thomas describes the the scene on Goodwick Sands as 'pathetic'. Thomas draws from John Manners, 5th Duke of Rutland's Journal of a tour through North Wales (1805) who quoted eyewitness accounts saying that many of the French "were at this time very ill with flux, which they had brought over with them. Some of them were dead".

View of Fishguard Harbour - Goodwick Sands are to the Left
Amongst the myths and legends associated with this battle, are a number of stories concerning the role of local women in the successful defence of Fishguard. One woman, named Jemima Nicholas, is reputed to have captured six French soldiers. These stories invariably feature women dressed in traditional Welsh dress and some commentators wrongly attribute the French surrender to officers mistaking these angry Welsh ladies for the feared redcoats of the British Army.

Commemorative stone to Jemima Nicholas
Thomas says that when Jemima died in 1832 the Vicar of Fishguard wrote in the Parish Register: 'The woman was called Jemima Vawr i.e. Jemima the Great, from her heroic acts, she having marched against the French who landed hereabouts in 1797, and being of such personal powers as to be able to overcome most men in a fight. I recollect her well' (my italics).

What is there to see now? Well, there are a number of reference points on the battlefield. A monument at Carregwastad Point and another In Fishguard, Llannwnda Church, The Jemima Nicholas headstone in Fishguard and, nearby, The Royal Oak Public House. The topography is unchanged and at low tide it is a simple matter to stroll across Goodwick Sands. The most impressive vestige - by far - is the stunning Invasion Tapestry which can be viewed in Fishguard Library - 70 women, two years work and 97 different colours.

Sunday, 3 September 2017

Corporal Sidney Day VC - 11th Battalion Suffolk Regiment

On Saturday 26th August 2017 a commemorative paving stone in honour of Corporal Sidney Day VC was unveiled adjacent to the Norwich City War Memorial. Almost exactly 100 years prior to this date, on the 24th August 1917, Sidney Day earnt his Victoria Cross through outstanding heroism at Malakhoff Farm, Hargicourt.

100th VC Anniversary Commemoration - Norwich
 Way back in 2004 I was contacted by a gentleman called Ron Mace who had been Sidney's neighbour in the post war years. Ron, who sadly died on 8th December 2013, felt very strongly that his ex neighbour's heroism should be acknowledged in his home town of Norwich. since Ron's death I've received regular updates from a friend of his, John Taylor, who has continued to constructively agitate for some kind of memorial.

Sidney Day was was born on 3rd July 1891 at St Anne's Lane, St Julien, Norwich - a property that was demolished in the 1930s. Ron recalled that Day came from 'humble origins'. He had seven siblings, three of whom did not survive childhood. Ron described Sidney as 'a very unassuming gentlemen' in his first letter to me. During the war Sidney was far from 'unassuming'. His stand-out courage reached it's zenith at Malakhoff Farm and his citation reads as follows.

Cpl Day successfully commanded a bombing section detailed to clear enemy trenches, killing two and taking four prisoners. Where the trench was levelled, he went on alone to contact flanking troops. On his return, a stick-bomb fell into the trench where there were five wounded. He seized the bomb and threw it out, where it exploded harmlessly, saving the lives of the wounded. He completed the clearing of the trench and remained in an advanced position for sixty-four hours under constant fire. His conduct throughout was an inspiration to all.

The commemoration at Norwich recognised two local heroes - Sidney Day VC of the Cambs Suffolks and Wilfred Edwards VC of the 7th Battalion, The King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry. Day's commemorative stone was unveiled by Michael Day, Sidney's son, and Deputy Lieutenant General the Lord Dannatt. After the ceremony I was delighted to have the opportunity of meeting Michael and two of his children (Sidney's grandchildren) - Chris and Michelle, along with six from the very latest generation of the Day family.

Chris and Michelle Day with their children
Michael - Sidney Day's son
Notwithstanding this token of remembrance, John Taylor is still pressing for a commemorative marker in the St Anne's area of Norwich where Sidney Day was born and where he lived prior to joining up. The area is currently undergoing major development and I'm delighted to say that Orbit Homes are very sympathetic to this idea. I hope to share some good news in this regard towards the end of this year.

Sidney Day's testimonial read by his son Michael can be viewed here.

Link to the Cambs Suffolks FAQ here.

Friday, 11 August 2017

Bernard Arthur Taylor - A Life on the Ocean Wave

 Uncle Bernard, as I knew him, was born in Havant, Hampshire on the 21st August 1887. 5 days after his 14th birthday, on the 26th August 1901, he enlisted as a bugler in the Royal Marines at Eastney Barracks, Portsmouth. Regimental number 9692. On enlistment Bernard was 4ft 11 inches tall and his next of kin was listed as Mrs Alma Taylor of 1 Reginald Road, Eastney, Portsmouth. His father, Arthur Taylor, was deceased by the time Bernard reached the age of enlistment. Religion: Church of England. Occupation: errand boy. 

Bernard served with the RMA (left) from 1901-1912 and then again between 1914 and 1916 and the RMLI(right) from 1916 to 1919.

Bernard served on board HMS Bulwark(above) from 24th October 1903 to 8th March 1906.

Bernard served on HMS Victorious (above) from 9th March 1906 to 31st December 1906.

Bernard served on HMS Dominion (above) from 2nd June 1908 to 5th June 1910.

Bernard served on HMS Commonwealth (above) from 6th June 1911 to 12th May 1912.

Bernard was discharged as 'no longer required' from the Royal Marines on the 22nd May 1912 but rejoined on the 5th September 1914 (Regimental number 14324). At the time of discharge he lived at 53 Ringwood Road, Portsmouth and at the time of hie re-enlistment it was 88 Ringwood Road, Portsmouth. His papers record a tattoed dragon on his left forearm and a bird on the right. Bernie began and ended his career as a bugler.

Bernard served on HMS Emperor of India (above) from 11th October 1914 to 22nd August 1916.

Much of Bernards' service during the Great War was spent with the 3rd Royal Marines Battalion at the supply depot, Mudros, in the Aegean. Latterly he spent time attached to the 28th Division in the Dardanelles area. He was demobilised on the 27th May 1919 and thereafter until his retirement worked as a civilian in Portsmouth Dockyard.

My father, Michael Curme, remembers Uncle Bernie - "I can only remember Bern talking about his time in Russia. He had one subject around which his world revolved and that was 'the officer class'. I think that he probably felt that he should have followed in his fathers' footsteps. Gilbert (Bernards' brother in law, my Great, Grandfather) only mentioned Bern in the context of his life after he left the Marines, but I can remember Ernest telling me that Bern had visited most countries of the world. My most vivid memories of Bern are of him sitting by the fire and opening his cupboard to the side of the fireplace. He never showed us the contents, which I imagine were quite fascinating. Aunt Maisie would humour him when he talked about officers and there is no doubt that he had a huge chip on his shoulder. Maisie had to iron during the day as she would take the bulb from the living room ceiling light and plug in the iron. A recipe for disaster! I never went upstairs in their house 50 Hudson Road."

Bernard Taylor - 15 Years Old

My mother, Janet Curme, remembers Bern and Maisie - "Bern lived with Maisie in a little terrace house near the old Plaza cinema now pulled down and the sitting room was rarely used as the floorboards were unsafe. He had a special cupboard beside the fireplace in the back room which was filled with his junk, we had the special honour of viewing it once. Maisie was always saying when he died she was going to get the Co-op dividend on his funeral and I am still wondering if she did. Maisie was called by our side of the family 'shaving stick Maisie' cos a Christmas I can remember she gave everyone shaving sticks she had got free on an offer I don't suppose she had much money. Her yearly party in the room with the broken floorboards was quite an event. We all sat in a semicircle on hard chairs with a paper bag in which were all the silver milk bottle tops saved throughout the year with one red milk bottle top. We each took turns to take a top out of the bag and when someone took the red one everyone said "Ah" and we put it back and started again. I can remember sitting there and wondering what the point was. I don't remember any drink being involved I think they were Baptists but churchgoers. It must have been about 1952. Living with them they had another younger couple as lodgers. Maisie and the wife always watched television in the middle room and Bernard spent all his time in the back room with his cupboard".

My only memory of Bernie and his wife Maysie is a Christmas visit in the early 1960s when Bernie gave me a wooden model of a ship. I remember that he had made it himself and that it was painted in blue and white.

Bernard died at the age of 77 years, having taken a tumble down the stairs at his home in Hudson Road, Southsea.

Saturday, 27 May 2017

The Vicksburg Campaign (1863)

It might initially appear odd to start a tour of the American Civil War's Mississippi battlefields in Washington DC. However it is here, in a prime position in front of the United States Capitol, that
 the veterans of the Army of the Tennessee decided to erect a spectacular monument to the man who lead them so effectively through 1863 - the critical year of the war. Ulysses S. Grant sits astride his horse gazing in the direction of the Lincoln Memorial flanked by equally dramatic representations of Federal cavalry and artillerymen.

Grant Memorial - The U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C.
Detail from the Grant Memorial, Washington D.C.
The Mississippi river was a vital communication artery for the CSA. Winfield Scott's Anaconda plan envisaged the Yankee army taking the Mississippi river from top to bottom thus severing the Confederacy in two. However in the spring of 1863, notwithstanding the fall of New Orleans in the previous year, the Confederate Army had a tight grip on the middle reaches from Port Hudson in the south to a point up and beyond Vicksburg - about 250 miles downstream from the city of Memphis.

The 'Widow Blakely' - Confederate Battery, Vicksburg
Grant, then commander of the Army of Tennessee, had made repeated attempts to open up the river to Union traffic. Set-piece attacks on Confederate positions in the north had been costly failures and an attempt to build a canal so as to bypass Vicksburg had been a fruitless endeavour. His decision to sail a flotilla of steamships with a major part of his army onboard to a point downstream of the city and then launch an amphibious assault caused consternation amongst many of his contemporaries. The ships would have to run a gauntlet under the sights of the CSA batteries on the Vicksburg heights and, once landed, his men would have no line of supply - the army would need to subsist through requisition and confiscation.

The Old Road East from Port Gibson
The run down-river went well and first contact with the Rebel Army came in the settlement of Port Gibson where the batteries at Fort Coburn were well placed to disrupt river traffic. After landing, Grant once again confounded Confederate expectations by setting out for Jackson rather than moving straight onto Vicksburg. The road and rail links through Jackson were the only means by which Pemberton's 60,000 strong army in Vicksburg could be resupplied.

A series of battles over the ensuing few weeks culminated in the fall of Jackson and the full encirclement of Vicksburg - Raymond (12 May 1863), Champion Hill (16 May 1863) and Big Black Bridge (17 May 1863).

Raymond - Batt D, 1st Illinois Light Art, 3rd Div, 17th Corps (USA)
Champion Hill - Bledsoe's Missouri Battery, Gregg's Task Force (CSA)
Local Confederate formations flowed back into Vicksburg and the city settled into a state of siege - a trial for civilians and soldiers alike. Most of the battlefield has been beautifully preserved with the siege lines facing out to fortified Federal positions. Recently much of the tree growth has been cleared so that the visitor can discern the gullies and hills which characterise the local topography.

Our excellent guide, Gary J. Millett, in full flow
The Vicksburg Siege Lines - Hillls and Gullies
Grant's Army made repeated attempts to breech the Confederate lines but to no avail. Losses on both sides were severe and so Grant reconciled himself to a formal siege. On July 3 1863, after forty six days of severe depredation for the defenders, The Confederate General Pemberton met with Grant to discuss surrender terms. On July 4 1863, Vicksburg officially surrendered and Grant's reputation as a military leader was made.

The site of Grant & Pemberton's meeting - July 3 1863
Five days later Port Hudson, 130 miles to the south, surrendered - the Mississippi was opened up to Union river traffic and the Confederacy was severed. "The father of waters," said President Lincoln, "again goes unvexed to the sea". 

The Port Hudson battlefield is a difficult site to read. The Mississippi now takes a slightly different course and so the old fortifications are effectively landlocked. Furthermore the area is heavily wooded so it is almost impossible to get a bearing on what the area looked like at the time of the American Civil War.

The site of Fort Babcock - Port Hudson, Louisiana
As most readers will know, following the successful Vicksburg campaign, Grant was eventually given command of the Federal Army and his leadership was the key to the North's victory. It is perhaps ironic that the reputation of this gifted commander, who achieved so much, is often unfairly overshadowed by that of his opposite number whom Grant outfought in the Eastern campaign - Robert E. Lee.

Wednesday, 17 May 2017

The Battle of New Orleans (1815)

The battlefield at Chalmette maybe the only such site accessible by paddle steamer. Indeed the trip down river from the wharfs at New Orleans on board the river boat Creole Queen is a great way of admiring the scale of the mighty River Mississippi and seeing some of the outlying New Orleans communities - many of which were sadly destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005.
Riverfront at New Orleans
The Battle of New Orleans was a last attempt by the British to reach a favourable settlement with the USA as the War of 1812 fizzled to an end in the face of more pressing issues closer to home - namely the resurgence of the Emperor Napoleon who would finally be stopped at Waterloo, five months after a token British force was defeated on the banks of the Mississippi. Major General Thomas Pakenham was tasked with taking New Orleans so as to control U.S. trade through the waterways of Louisiana. Major General Andrew Jackson (later President Jackson) was in command of a mixed force of 5,000 local men and was emboldened by an intense disapproval of the British whom he famously called "the common enemy of mankind".
The American Defence Line at Chalmette
The battlefield is well preserved although the authenticity of the trenches still evident on the Western fringes may have been compromised by the landscaping that is taken place over the last two hundred years. Parts of the canal which was a major obstacle in front of the American positions are partly discernible as depressions in the ground. The picture above shows the northern end of the line where Jackson's force dug in. The area where the British assembled is now dominated by a tall factory chimney. The 44th (East Sussex) Regiment of Foot attacked head on, parallel to the river bank. The failure of this move was exacerbated by the massive losses sustained in a subsequent attack by the 93rd Highlanders. Both movements are shown in the first picture below.
Map of the Battlefield from the Park
Monument & Visitor Centre - Chalmette Battlefield

The attack was a costly failure and resulted in British withdrawal from Louisiana. Andrew Jackson's contribution - on the battlefield and later in the political world - is acknowledged in the centre of the French Quarter in downtown New Orleans. Jackson Square is dominated by a statue of the great man on horseback waving his hat in acknowledgement of cheering supporters. The Chalmette National Cemetery adjacent to the Battlefield Park is mainly testament to later wars. The majority of burials are Union soldiers killed during the Civil War. Amongst the others are four War of 1812 veterans of which one fought at New Orleans.

The historic St Louis Cemetery No.1 close to Congo Square on the northern fringe of the French Quarter contains a memorial to Americans killed at the Battle of New Orleans. The inscription reads 'Among burials in this area are William P. Canby who died in defence of the city in the Battle of New Orleans and the defeat of the British Army, January 8th, 1815'.

 New Orleans has a number of sites which will be of interest to military historians. Firstly the hugely impressive statue of Robert E Lee in 'Robert E Lee Square'. For me this speaks volumes about the Confederate leadership in the Civil War where the South suffered from a deficit of top quality generalship in the West.
Rober E Lee

I can't help wondering whether there would be an Albert Sidney Johnson Square had the man in question survived The Battle of Shiloh. Lee never fought in the West during the Civil War so his presence here is surely emblematic.
The Museum of the Confederacy

The second site of interest is the Confederate Memorial Hall which is located a few yards from Lee's statue. This old school museum is full of fascinating artefacts. I was particularly struck by the battle-flags and the personal papers of various Civil War participants. It's a highly partisan collection but is well worth a visit.

The final site is on a different scale entirely. The National WWII Museum is on the opposite side of Lee Square and represents all that is good about modern day historical interpretation.
National WWII Museum

The museum is set in two parts. The War in Europe and The War in the East. The visitor is guided through a series of set piece chronological interactive display areas which contain a great mix of exhibits, information panels and historical documents. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the whole thing is very 'USA centric' and in particular the critical role of the Soviet Union in the West is massively understated. For me though, the galleries on the Pacific War were a revelation - a great mix of learning and entertainment.

Tuesday, 4 April 2017

Shiloh - Railroads and Rivers (1862)

In the 1860s armies in the field were entirely dependent on the movement of men and material by rail or waterway. Following the loss of Kentucky and Mid Tennessee in February 1862 the Confederacy was obliged to protect the strategically important Mississippi valley and therefore amassed a force of 44,000 men under the command of General Albert Sidney Johnson at the major rail hub of Corinth.

Corinth Railroad Crossing
Corinth retains a 'time stands still' charm although nowadays
Highway 61 and the Natchez Trace have turned the place into something of a backwater. The rail intersection (North / South and East / West) is still the centre of the town though and every few minutes a freight train thunders through.

Freight Train - Corinth
In mid March, 22 miles northeast of Corinth, General Ulysses S. Grant disembarked his 40,000 strong force at Pittsburg Landing on the busy Tennessee River. Expecting the Confederates to hunker down in Corinth, Grant ordered his men to set up camps in the area around Shiloh Church. His instructions were to await reinforcements in the form Don Carlos Buell's Army of the Ohio which was en-route overland from Nashville.

Pittsburg Landing - Then and Now
Johnston took full advantage of Grant's complacency in not fortifying the camps by launching a surprise attack. At dawn on the 6th April 1862 a tide of well armed, highly motivated Confederate troops swept through the Federal lines. Many of the units under Grant's command stubbornly contested the Confederate advance but over a period of six hours the defending troops were gradually pushed back towards the gullies surrounding the landing site. 

Picket Fence & Gun Battery at Shiloh

Both sides were using Napoleonic tactics and regiments fought in line two men deep. Accurate rifle fire and plentiful artillery wreaked havoc on the lines. In particular canister shot from amassed guns blew large gaps in the ranks of infantry. The casualty rate was truly horrific - amounting to 28% of those who fought once the final roll calls were taken at the end of the battle. One of the most poignant spots on the modern day battlefield is the Hornet's Nest where Union forces held on for several hours in the face of determined assaults by Confederate infantry supported by massed artillery (Ruggles' Grand Battery).
The southern face of the Hornet's Nest
Despite the determined assault, Grant showed his mettle by hanging onto the Pittsburg Landing bridgehead. As the Federal Army's line contracted so Grant was able to concentrate his fire more effectively. Suffering extreme fatigue and mounting losses the force of the attack began to diminish. With Buell's Brigades starting to arrive on the evening of 6th April the advantage began to swing to the Union side.

Confederate Battlefield Cemetery - Shiloh
The battlefield is a complex one to interpret so we enlisted the services of accredited guide Gary Millett. Gary did a great job in taking us through the sequence of events, enlivening his narrative with personal observations about some of the units and commanders involved. 

Gary Millett explaining how regiments fought 'in line'
On Day 2 - the 7th April 1862 'the spring decompressed' and the larger Union Force began to push back on the Confederate attackers. The Confederates had been further disadvantaged the previous day by the loss of their commander - General Albert Sidney Johnson. Johnson was mortally wounded whilst directing the final - successful - assault on the Peach Orchard. General P.G.T. Beauregard took command of the Confederate Army but the loss of Johnson - an inspirational figure - affected morale and impacted the strategic direction of the Confederate effort. 

In seeing Robert E. Lee's statue in New Orleans a few hours drive down Highway 61 I couldn't help reflecting on whether Johnson might have been given this honour had he survived Shiloh and gone on the fight further battles - after all Lee did not fight in the Western theatre.
Red Light for Robert E. Lee in New Orleans
On the morning of the 7th April, the Union force aided by 25,000 reinforcements unleashed a counter-offensive. Despite ragged command and control on account of Grant and Buell's failure to communicate with each other effectively, the attacking Brigades pushed the Confederate defenders back through the broken camps which had been the scene of such difficult fighting the previous day. 

Union Artillery at 'Bloody Pond'
After six hours of bitter fighting, Beauregard ordered a retreat to Corinth. The exhausted Union force did not pursue the retreating Confederates - a criticism which has since been made. Corinth was abandoned by Beauregard three weeks later as Halleck's 100,000 strong Union Army began to threaten a decisive assault on the beleaguered town. Nowadays the Battlefield Park at Shiloh is a beautifully preserved site which is home to an abundance of wildlife including several large herds of deer.

Many of the Union dead are interred in a large cemetery at Pittsburg Landing in proximity to the modern day Visitor Centre. As for the Confederate dead, many are buried where they fell - in particular in five mass graves  around the battlefield. As is the case with so many American Civil War battlefields, the ground is marked by numerous memorials and the position of batteries is shown by the careful placement of guns.

Defeated Victory
One of the most impressive memorials was erected in 1917 by 'the United Daughters of the Confederacy'. Designed by Frederick Hibbard it is rich with imagery and meaning. The picture above shows a representation of the Confederate cavalry and endeavours to acknowledge the frustration experienced by horsemen at Shiloh who were unable to deploy effectively on ground covered in thick undergrowth and criss-crossed by deep gullies.